- ATHALIAH (Heb. עֲתַלְיָה, עֲתַלְיָהוּ; perhaps: "Yahweh-is-lord"; cf. Akkadian etellu, "lord"), sole reigning queen of Judah (842–836 B.C.E.), daughter of ahab and jezebel (or perhaps a daughter of Omri) of Israel. Athaliah's marriage to Jehoram (Joram) , crown prince of Judah, sealed the alliance between Israel and Judah. It also led to the introduction of Baal (probably = Melqart) worship in Jerusalem alongside the worship of Yahweh, both during the period of her husband's rule and her son Ahaziah's one-year reign (II Kings 8:16–18, 25–27; II Chron. 21:5 ff.; 22:2–4). When Ahaziah was murdered by Jehu in the course of the anti-Omride revolt, Athaliah the queen-mother seized power, murdering all possible rivals in the royal family, just as her husband had done on his accession, possibly on her prompting. Only one infant son of Ahaziah, joash , escaped, saved by his aunt Jehosheba, the sister of the dead king and the wife of High Priest jehoiada (II Kings 9:27–28; 11:1–3; II Chron. 22:8–12). Six years later, Jehoiada carefully conspired to have Joash crowned in the Temple as the legitimate king, and Athaliah, who had hurried to the scene crying "treason," was led to the "horse entrance" ("The Horse Gate?"), where she was killed (II Kings 11:4–16; II Chron. 23:1–15). The Temple of Baal was destroyed and its priest Mattan, apparently a supporter of Athaliah, put to death (II Kings 11:18; II Chron. 23:17). Athaliah's violent end was inevitable, as her reign must have been odious not only to the priesthood of the Yahweh Temple but also to the royal guard, who saw in her a foreign usurper and the murderer of the royal Davidic line. However, there is some reason to doubt that young Joash was really in danger, as he, a minor, would have given legitimacy to Athaliah's reign; there is also the suggestion that she herself placed him in the guardianship of the high priest. In the aggadah, Athaliah is grouped with Jezebel, vashti , and Semiramis as one of the four women who achieved power in the world (Esth. R. 1:9). (Hanoch Reviv) -In the Arts Athaliah's violent career appealed to the taste of the late 17th-century theatergoer for grand and austerely moral themes. The outstanding treatment of her story was by the French dramatist jean racine , whose Athalie (1691) became a classic tragedy. The part of the villainous queen was one of Sarah Bernhardt's great roles. One of the play's many adaptations was Gemul Atalyah ("Athaliah's Revenge," 1770), a Hebrew version by the Dutch author david franco-mendes . Incidental music for the first performance of Athalie was written by J.B. Moreau and for later productions by F.A. Boieldieu (1809), felix mendelssohn (1845), and Frank Martin (1946). Handel's oratorio Athalia (1733) was also based on Racine's play. Operas on the Athaliah theme were written by J.S. Mayr (1822) and Hugo weisgall (1964). Weisgall's work used some Jewish liturgical motifs to create a biblical atmosphere. In Christian art, Athaliah's murder of the children of the House of David was treated as a prefiguration of Herod's "Massacre of the Innocents." There are interesting representations of Athaliah's story in the 14th-century Wenceslas Bible, the 15th-century Chaise-Dieu tapestry, Renaissance stained glass windows in Cologne and King's College Chapel, Cambridge, and some 15th-century French miniatures. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: BIBLE: Bright, Hist, 222, 233–4, 236; Katzenstein, in: IEJ, 5 (1955), 194 ff.; J.A. Montgomery, The Book of Kings (ICC, 1951), 410–1; J. Gray, I and II Kings (1964), 510–1; Ginsberg, in: Fourth World Congress of Jewish Studies, 1 (1967), 91–93. ARTS: T. Ehrenstein, Das Alte Testament im Bilde (1923), 688, 696. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 124–34.
Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.
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Athaliah — or Athalie (Hebrew: Unicode|ʻĂṯalyâ (עֲתַלְיָה), God is exalted ) was the queen of Judah during the reign of King Jehoram, and later became sole ruler of Judah for five years. William F. Albright has dated her reign to 842 BC – 837 BC, while E. R … Wikipedia
Athaliah — /ath euh luy euh/, n. a daughter of Ahab and Jezebel and usurper of the throne of Judah, reigned 842 837 B.C. II Kings 11:1 3. Also, Douay Bible, Athalia. * * * ▪ queen of Judah also spelled Athalia, in the Old Testament, the daughter of … Universalium
Athaliah — Athalia Pour l’article homonyme, voir Athalia (homonymie). Athalia ou Athalie fut une reine de Juda sous le règne du roi Joram. Elle est devenue la dirigeante du royaume pendant cinq ans après l assassinat de son mari et mourra elle… … Wikipédia en Français
Athaliah — Whom God afflicts. 1) The daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, and the wife of Jehoram, king of Judah (2 Kings 8:18), who walked in the ways of the house of Ahab (2 Chr. 21:6), called daughter of Omri (2 Kings 8:26). On the death of her husband… … Easton's Bible Dictionary
Athaliah — (fl. 9th cent BCE) Queen of Judah (842 836 BCE). When her son Ahaziah was murdered by Jehu she seized power and murdered all her rivals except Joash. Six years later she was killed when Joash was crowned king in the Temple (II Kings 11:4 16;… … Dictionary of Jewish Biography
Athaliah — The only queen to rule Judah (843–837 BCE); she organized a purge of male rivals except one, Joash, who murdered her and succeeded to the throne (2 Kgs. 11:16) … Dictionary of the Bible
Athaliah — /ath euh luy euh/, n. a daughter of Ahab and Jezebel and usurper of the throne of Judah, reigned 842 837 B.C. II Kings 11:1 3. Also, Douay Bible, Athalia … Useful english dictionary
biblical literature — Introduction four bodies of written works: the Old Testament writings according to the Hebrew canon; intertestamental works, including the Old Testament Apocrypha; the New Testament writings; and the New Testament Apocrypha. The Old… … Universalium
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2 Kings 11 — 1 And when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the seed royal. 2 But Jehosheba, the daughter of king Joram, sister of Ahaziah, took Joash the son of Ahaziah, and stole him from among the king s… … The King James version of the Bible